If you’re thinking about upgrading your furnace, one of the first steps is to decide on an efficiency rating. This will impact your up-front costs and what you pay for home heating in the future. Use this guide to learn more about AFUE ratings and how they affect you.
AFUE is short for Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. It is a measure of how efficiently a furnace or boiler switches fuel into heat for your home over the course of a year. The higher the AFUE rating (on a scale of 0% to 100%), the more efficient the system is at converting fuel into usable heat.
AFUE ratings are measured by calculating the ratio of a furnace’s heat output to the fuel it consumes in the process. This calculation accounts for the energy lost through exhaust gases, radiation and other elements that reduce efficiency. The result is expressed as a percentage, representing the amount of fuel converted into heat.
Calculating a heating system’s AFUE rating involves conducting a standard test cycle to quantify the heat output and fuel consumption. This test cycle is designed to simulate typical heating conditions over the year, including both on and off periods. The heating system then functions at maximum capacity for an extensive period to determine its peak performance.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has gradually increased HVAC efficiency ratings over the past few decades in an effort to promote energy efficiency and reduce emissions that harm the ozone/atmosphere. In 2023, the minimum rating for new gas furnaces was recalculated to be 81 AFUE. From 2015 to 2022, the South and Southwest regions had a minimum rating of 80 AFUE, and the North required furnaces to be rated 90 AFUE or higher. Better AFUE ratings reduce energy consumption, lowers power bills and reduces the environmental impact of heating your home.
When shopping for new furnaces, you may notice many models around 80 and 90 AFUE, with little in between. This is because the technology required to exceed 80 AFUE causes a significant jump in performance.
The 80 AFUE threshold has been the minimum requirement for gas furnaces in the U.S. since the 1990s. At this level, furnaces convert 80% of the fuel they consume into heat, with the remaining 20% forfeited to the atmosphere through the flue.
Gas furnaces must use more advanced technology to secure higher AFUE ratings, such as two-stage or modulating gas valves, variable-speed blowers and secondary heat exchangers. These technologies help the furnace extract heat from the fuel source more effectively, boosting efficiency from 80 to 90 AFUE or higher. Today’s best furnaces cap out at around 98.5 AFUE.
The cost of a furnace with a higher AFUE rating is typically higher than that of a lower AFUE-rated furnace. After all, more advanced technologies come at a higher price. The exact cost difference depends on the furnace brand, size and efficiency rating.
When evaluating the up-front cost of a more efficient furnace, remember the future energy savings that awaits you. The ability to save money on energy bills for the next decade or longer helps you to recoup the extra up-front investment.
While a higher AFUE rating results in more efficient home heating and lower energy bills, this doesn’t necessarily mean every homeowner should buy a 95 AFUE furnace. Here are the factors to take into account when comparing costs and efficiency ratings:
For help determining the best heating system for your needs and budget, turn to Epperson Service Experts. We can help you weigh the up-front costs and long-term benefits of different AFUE ratings to steer your decision. We’re so confident you’ll be satisfied with our services that we offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee! To learn more or to schedule a free furnace installation estimate, please contact a Service Experts office near you.
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